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A

Argon Gas 
A gas that is heavier than air – it can be used to fill the airspace of an insulated glass unit. Argon is a safe, colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic gas, which is six times denser than air. Argon increases the insulating value of an insulated glass unit as well as helps improve sound insulation qualities.

Awning Window 

A window that is hinged at the top horizontal edge, and cranks open or shut from the bottom.

B

Balance 
The system in the side jambs of a single or double-hung window that helps open and support the weight of the sash, and helps hold the sash in place while in an open position.

Bay Window 
A bay window is generally made up of three windows. The side or flanker units project out from the building at 30, 45, or 90 degree angles. The center is parallel with the building wall and is made up of one or more joined windows. All of the units can be stationary, operating, or any combination of the two. Typically the center section is stationary, while the side units are operating for ventilation.

Beveled Exterior 
An extension of the vinyl frame that adds an aesthetically pleasing dimension to the exterior of the
window.

Blank Door 
Door that has no bore holes or hinge locations.

Bore Holes 
Holes created for the doorknob and beadbolt.

Bow Window
A series of three or more adjoining window units, commonly five in number, each connected at 10-20
degree angles to form a circular arch appearance.

Brick Mould
Exterior casing trim around a window or door. Brick mould covers the gap between the frame and masonry opening. In some cases, siding is installed up to the edge of the brick mould.

C

Casement Window 
A window unit in which the single sash that opens outward to the left or right, projecting off the plane of the wall. The sash unit is hinged on one side and is operated by a crank mechanism.

Casing 
Inside casing is a flat, decorative moulding that covers the inside edge of the jambs and the rough openings between the window unit and the wall. Outside casing (or brickmould), serves the same purpose.

Caulking 
A compound for filing joints to prevent air and water leakage. Caulking is used where air and water leakage and/or movement may occur.

Circle Top
A generic term referring to any of a variety of window units having a curved top frame member, and are often used over another window or over a door opening.

Condensation
The formation of water vapor from the air on any cold surface, whose temperature is below the dew point.

Cottage Window 
A double hung or single hung window with a larger proportioned top sash, as compared to the bottom sash.

D

Dew Point 
The temperature at which condensation occurs.

Divided Lite
A window opening divided into smaller sections by a grid system on the interior or exterior of the glass, between the glass panes, or any combination of these three.

Double Glazing
Two panes of glass separated by a sealed air space, forming a glass panel that increases energy efficiency and provides other performance benefits such as improved outside noise reduction.

Double Hung Window
A window unit that contains two vertically-sliding operable sashes, which move vertically in the frame.

Drip Cap 
A molding designed to divert water from the top of a window unit so that water moves beyond the outside of the frame.

E

Egress Window
A window opening large enough, as defined by local building codes, for exit or entry in case of an emergency. Typically required in bedrooms where no other means of exterior escape exists.

ENERGY STAR® 
A government-backed program helping businesses and individuals protect the environment through the use of energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR® qualifying products, such as windows and doors, mean these items use less energy, save money and help protect the environment. Energy Star is a registered trademark of the U.S. Department of Energy.

F

Fixed 
A window that is non-venting or non-operable, such as a picture window.

Flashing
A metal or plastic strip attached to the outside of the head or side jambs of windows and doors to provide a weather barrier, resisting leakage between the window or door frame and the wall.

Flush Door 
A door that has no panels or glass.

Frame 
The combination of head, jambs, and sill to form a precise opening in which a window sash or door panel fits.

G

Garden Window 
A window that projects out from an exterior wall, often used as a greenhouse window for house plants. It has a slanted glass roof that allows heat and light from the sun to enter.

Geometric Window 
Specialty windows of various shapes including: rectangles, triangles, trapezoids, octagons, pentagons, half-rounds, quarter rounds, full rounds sectors and ellipses.

Grille 
A decorative grid on the interior or exterior surface of the glass, or, more commonly found between sealed between glass panes in an insulated glass unit, or in any combination of these locations that divides a window opening into smaller openings to create simulated divided lite or true divided lite. Grilles may or may not be removable.

H

Head 
The main horizontal member forming the top of the window or door frame.

Hinge Location 
Hinge location is mortised into the new door to match existing door and jamb.

Hopper 
Basement window that opens into the building.

Horizontal Sliding Window 
One or more sash that slide horizontally past each other. One or more sash may be fixed (inoperable), or each sash may operate to open and close.

I

Insulated Glass (IG) 
A combination of two or more panes of glass with an hermetically sealed air space between the glass panes. This space may or may not be filled with an inert gas, such as argon gas.

J

Jamb 
The main vertical members forming the sides of a window or door frame.

L

Lift Rail Handle 
Handle or grip installed on the sash of a window to make it easier to raise or lower the sash.

Limited Travel 
Sash opening is limited.

Lite 
A unit of flat glass; one glass panel expressed as a “lite”.

Low-E (Emissivity) Glass 
Glass treated with a thin transparent coating of metallic oxide (generally silver). Allows natural light and short-wave heat energy to freely penetrate glass during the winter, while reflecting long-wave heat energy back outside during the summer months. Helps keep your home cool in the summer and warm in the winter. It greatly reduces ultraviolet light to enter the home, minimizing fading exposure to carpet and furnishings.

M

Meeting Rail 
The joinery point where horizontal or vertical sections of the top and bottom sash meet when the window is closed. On sliders, the meeting rail is vertical. On single and double hung windows, the meeting rail is horizontal.

Moulding 
Strips of wood usually shaped to a curved profile, used to accent and emphasize the ornamentation of a structure and to conceal surface or angle joints.

Mulled Unit 
Two or more window units structurally joined together.

Mullion 
A metal or vinyl extrusion used to structurally join two or more windows.

Muntin 
The pieces of decorative grid that help divide a window opening into smaller sections. Also called a grille or a grid.

N

Nailing Fin 
Used to secure the window into a rough opening.

O

Obscure/Translucent Glass 
A frosted or textured glass that transmits light, but obscures the view.

P

Pane 
A framed sheet of glass within a window or door frame.

Panel 
Usually refers to the separate panel or panels in a door frame. A panel may be operable or stationary (fixed).

Paint Grade
A door that can be painted, but not stained.

Pitch 
The pitch of a roof is the degree of the inclination upward from horizontal or flat. It may be expressed in degrees, or as the ratio of the number of inches it rises in each 12 inches of horizontal span:  a 4/12 pitch means the roof rises four inches for every running foot of horizontal span.

Q

Quad 
A group of windows mulled in combination of fours.

R

R-Value 
Resistance to thermal transfer or heat flow. Higher R-value numbers indicate greater insulating value. It is the inverse of the U-Value (R=1/U).

Rail 
The horizontal top and bottom members of a window sash or door panel.

Replacement Window 
A window designed to replace and  fit into an existing window opening once the old window is removed.

Rough Opening "R-O"
The framed opening in a wall into which a window or door unit is to be installed.

S

Sash 
A single assembly of stiles and rails made into a frame, designed to hold the glass in a window, which is then set into a main frame. A sash may be operable or inoperable.

Sash Balance 
A system of cords, and/or springs that assist in raising a sash, while keeping the sash in any placed position by counter-balancing the weight of the sash.

Sash Lock 
Generally, a cam-action or other latch-type lock applied to the sashes of a sliding window to both pull the sashes tightly together and to seal the sash tightly to the frame, both for security and to create a weather tight seal.

Sash Stop 
An extrusion molding piece, generally about 2” long that covers the joint between window sash and the jamb, stopping the operable sash at its maximum opening.

Shims 
Wood, plastic or composite wedges used to secure the window or door unit in the rough or masonry opening in a square, level and plumb position both during and after installation.

Sidelight 
Tall, narrow, fixed or operating sash on either or both sides of a door to light an entryway or vestibule.

Sill 
The main horizontal member forming the bottom frame portion of a window or door.

Simulated Divided Light (SDL) 
A method of constructing windows in which muntins are affixed to the inside and outside of a panel of insulating glass to simulate the look of true divided light panes.

Single Glazing 
Use of a single pane of glass in a window. Not nearly as energy-efficient as insulated glass.

Single Hung Window 
Window with a fixed top sash and a vertically operating bottom sash.

Slider Window 
Window that slides horizontally to the left or right.

Sliding Patio Door 
A patio door in which a vent panel moves horizontally on a sill track system past a fixed or operable panel.

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) 
A measure of how effective a window or door is at keeping out solar heat. It is calculated by taking the amount of solar heat that enters a room through a window or door, divided by the amount that is actually contacting the exterior of the unit. The lower the value, the better the unit keeps out solar heat.

Sound Transmission Class (STC) Rating 
Measures the amount of noise reduction that can be achieved with a given product.  The higher the number, the better the product is at suppressing sound transmission.

Stain Grade 
A Door that can be stained or painted.

Stile 
The vertical member of a window sash or frame, or of a door panel.

T

Tempered Glass 
A glass panel that is heated and subsequently rapidly cooled in its manufacturing process, creating a product that can withstand abnormal force or pressure on its surface, and which does not break into sharp pieces (also known as ‘safety glass’); code requires tempered glass in all doors (including patio doors), and in windows that are located near doors, bathtubs, or showers.

Tilt Window (Tilt-Wash)
A window designed in such a way that the sashes tilt inward for easy cleaning of the outside glass surface.

Transom 
A small window placed over the top of a door or window, primarily for additional light and aesthetic value.

Triple 
A group of windows mulled (joined) in combination of threes.

Twin 
A group of windows mulled (joined) in combinations of twos.

U

U-Value (U-Factor) 
A calculation expressing the rate of heat transfer through a window or door. The lower the U-value, the better the insulating properties of the window or door.

W

Weatherstrip 
Various shaped metal, vinyl, plastic or fiber strips that fit tightly against the window or door frame to resist air and water infiltration through gaps and cracks.

Wind Load 
Force extended on a surface by moving air.